•  A field of study that resolved the decades-long debate over Nature vs. Nurture as one or the other being the essential element of human nature in that we now know that environment shapes biology, including nurture as an integral aspect of the environment. Furthermore, we now know that the effects of environment begins in utero.  While it may be difficult for some to swallow the fact that our actions both on an individual and collective scale brought into being such problems as gross crime, poverty, addiction, and warfare, this vital awareness empowers us with the ability to create an environment absent of systemic problems that affect us all; such as, poverty, gross crime, addiction, and/or warfare.